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Years after the war

On November 1 of 1945, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR issued a resolution on the measures for restoration of 15 cities of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic destroyed by the fascist invaders including Kalinin. In the next 10-15 years, the city received a number of buildings built in the so-called Soviet classicism style: Drama Theater (1951), House of Culture in the Gagarin Square (1953), library named after M. Gorky, building of the polytechnic institute in the Prospekt Lenina (1954) etc. Among the best buildings built in 1950 was the block of apartments at the corner of the Volnogo Novgoroda Street and Tverskoy Prospekt (with Optika store). A similar composition method was used in the architecture of the neighboring house near Zvezda cinema theater. A new bridge over the Volga River was built in the center of the city in 1953 (the arch constructions of the Nikolaevsky Bridge over the Neva River in St. Petersburg built between 1843 and 1850 were used during its construction).

Industrial methods of the follow-up construction of houses according to typical projects allocated a secondary role to the architectural decor of the buildings. Simultaneously, there continued destruction of ancient buildings, especially the religious ones: the shopping arcade in the Krestyanskaya Square (architect K. I. Rossi) was demolished in 1960, the church of Philip Apostle (1774) and the German Protestant church (1840, architect, K. I. Geidenreikh), the temple of Alexander Nevsky (1983) etc were demolished too. The following monuments were erected in Tver: to Afanasy Nikitin (1955), I. A. Krylov (1959), A. S. Pushkin (1972, 1974), M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin (1976), V. I. Lenin (1925, 1959, 1980 etc), M. I. Kalinin (1955, 1956 etc); multi-figure bronze compositions Friendship dedicated to the festival of youth and students (1957) and "Agreement of thousands" (1982) dedicated to the events of 1929; the Victory Obelisk (1970) etc. The Tver plant of electric equipment was put into operation in 1947, TETS-4 (combined heat and power plant) was built in 1949. In the same year the excavator plant mastered production of excavators on automotive chassis, the first facilities of the factory of chemical fibers (Khimvolokno) and the plant of silicate bricks (Tver Factory of Construction Materials No. 2) were put into operation in 1950, the Tver printing and publishing integrated works were built in 1956, the Tver silk-weaving factory was established in 1957, Iskozh factory was established in 1962 on the basis of the plant of substitutes of upper leather and KREPZ (1938) built in the same year. The Tver worsted integrated works were built in 1963, a big meat-processing plant and a pharmaceutical factory were built in 1965, the first part of the Tver plant of glass plastic and glass fiber was built in 1966. TETS-3 was built in 1973. Research and production association Tsentrprogrammsistem was established in 1974 (since 1989, it has been joint Russian-German venture Tsentron), Tsentrosvar plant was built in 1974. By the beginning of the 1990s, there were about 80 industrial enterprises of 28 industries in Tver.

Tver is an important transport node. Tver port was established in 1961 at the deepwater part of the Upper Volga. The circular highway with a bridge over the Volga River was opened in 1961. It connected the highways to Moscow, St. Petersburg, Rzhev, Volokolamsk and Turginovo. Asphalt-concrete roads were built from Tver to Bezhetsk and Kimry. Supply of natural gas to Kalinin was started in 1962 through the Stavropol-Serpukhov-Leningrad gas pipeline. In the same year Kalinin was connected to the United Energy System of the European part of the USSR after construction of 220-330 kV power transmission lines, the through electric train started circulating between Moscow and Kalinin in the same year.

There are five higher educational institutions in Tver: Tver State University (established in 1971), Tver Polytechnic Institute (1958, now it is the Tver Technical University), Tver State Medical Institute (1954, now it is the Tver Medical Academy), Tver Agricultural Institute (1972, Tver Agricultural Academy), Military Academy of Air Defense named after G. K. Zhukov (1956); some research institutes including the All-Union Research Institute of Synthetic Fibers (VNIISV), All-Union Research Institute of Geophysical Methods of Research, Tests and Control Over Oil and Gas Exploration Wells (VNIIGIK, 1982 ) etc, 11 secondary special educational institutions, Suvorov military school (1943), 14 vocational technical schools, 48 secondary schools etc.

Among the cultural institutions are: Tver Drama Theater (1921), Youth Theater (1959), Tver Puppet Theater (1944, special building - 1975), regional philharmonic society (1936) in which an organ was installed in 1991, Tver State Circus (1971), 12 cinema theaters (including Vulkan, Zvezda, Rossiya, Mir etc), eight palaces of culture etc. Tver is a big museum center: the Tver state united historic, architectural and literature museum was established in 1977 on the basis of the regional local history museum, the Tver daily life museum was opened in 1970, the museum of M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin was opened in 1976, the museum of the history of healthcare of Tver Governorate and Tver Region was opened in 1969 etc. In 1987, the Tver regional picture gallery received an additional exhibition hall.

The Kalinin repeater television center was put into operation in 1955, regular programs of Tver television began on March 14 of 1989. The following newspapers are published in Tver: Tverskaya Zhizn (until July 24 of 1990 - Kalininskaya Pravda), Tverskie Vedomosti (since September 1 of 1990), city newspaper Veche Tver (since October 3 of 1990) etc. There are the following regional divisions of creative organizations in Tver: Union of Writers of the Russian Federation, Union of Artists of the Russian Federation, Union of Architects of the Russian Federation, Union of Journalists of the Russian Federation, Theater Union of the Russian Federation etc. In 1987, the public of Kalinin advocated return of the historic name to the city. Initial group "Vozvrashchenie" was established. On November 14 of 1989, the united session of the city and district councils of people's deputies of Kalinin adopted a resolution on return of the historic name to Tver. On July 27, the council of people's deputies of Kalinin Region adopted resolution "On restoration of the name of the City of Tver and relevant renaming of Kalinin Region into Tver Region." On July 17 of 1990, Chair of the Supreme Council of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic B. N. Yeltsin signed two decrees of the presidium of the Supreme Council of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic: "On renaming of the city of Kalinin into the city of Tver" and "On renaming of Kalinin Region into Tver Region." A solemn veche (people's assembly) took place in Tver on July 29 of 1990. This was a holiday dedicated to return of the original name to the city. The coat of arms of Tver approved by Empress Catherine II in 1780 was officially restored on November 16 of 1990.